Printing and writing have involved the use of color or black materials contained in various vehicles since the time of cavemen. The first pigment believed to be used was probably lampblack dating back as long as 4000 -5000 years. Modern printing inks contain many components each having a specific purpose in maintaining color, intensity, dispersion, viscosity, as well as acting as a milling aide. The table below shows the general type of chemical and its application. These materials impart specific properties to the ink to allow for design considerations of printers and final use.